The Media Pluralism Monitor (MPM) is a project co-founded by the European Union and developed since 2014 by the Centre for Media Pluralism and Media. The project aims at regularly assessing the risks to media pluralism in Europe, taking into account legal, political and economic variables. As in previous versions, the MPM 2022 also includes an additional focus on media pluralism in the digital environment.
The MPM is based on 20 indicators covering four areas*:
- Fundamental protection: Protection of freedom of expression and right to information / Independent journalistic work / Independent and effective media authorities / Universal reach of media.
- Market plurality: Transparency of media ownership / Media concentration / Media sustainability.
- Political independence: Political independence of media organisations and public service media / State support to the media sector.
- Social inclusiveness: Access to media for local and regional communities and for community media / Access to media for women / Media literacy.
Regarding the digital environment, the study points out an increased risk to journalist's safety online, a market dominance of digital platforms, a lack of consistent and transparent data and the absence of regulation and measures regarding political advertising and ownership transparency. However, digital media seem to be more resilient with better sustainability indicators.
As a conclusion, it is stated that this new MPM 'has confirmed the findings of the previous four rounds of monitoring – showing that none of the countries analysed is free from risks to media pluralism'.
* For the complete list of indicators covered, see the table 2.a. of the report (p. 11).
Year covered: 2021
Geographical scope: EU member states, Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Türkiye.
Further EPRA background: Pluralism has been several times addressed in EPRA meetings. For EPRA material on the topic of pluralism, see the EPRA podcast "media plurality in the age of algorithms" released on 9 July 2020 and the related background document. Under another perspective, pluralism will also be addressed wihtin the topic 'Dis/misinformation, Plurality and Trust' at the next 56th EPRA meeting in October.